Reference intervals for urinary renal injury biomarkers KIM-1and NGAL in healthy children

Stephen J. McWilliam, Daniel J. Antoine, Venkata Sabbisetti, Robin E. Pearce, Andrea L. Jorgensen, Yvonne Lin, J. Steven Leeder, Joseph V. Bonventre, Rosalind L. Smyth, Munir Pirmohamed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals in healthy children for two novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Materials & Methods: Urinary biomarkers were determined in samples from children in the UK (n = 120) and the USA (n = 171) using both Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Luminex-based analytical approaches. Results: 95% reference intervals for each biomarker in each cohort are presented and stratified by sex or ethnicity where necessary, and age-related variability is explored using quantile regression. We identified consistently higher NGAL concentrations in females than males (p <0.0001), and lower KIM-1 concentrations in African-Americans than Caucasians (p = 0.02). KIM-1 demonstrated diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the morning (p <0.001). Conclusion: This is the first report of reference intervals for KIM-1 and NGAL using two analytical methods in a healthy pediatric population in both UK and US-based populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1189-1197
Number of pages9
JournalBiomarkers in medicine
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • KIM-1
  • nephrotoxicity
  • pediatric nephrology
  • proximal tubule
  • ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN
  • REFERENCE VALUES
  • CREATININE
  • AGE
  • ESTABLISHMENT
  • NORMALIZATION
  • POPULATION
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • INFANTS

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