Reference intervals for urinary renal injury biomarkers KIM-1and NGAL in healthy children

Stephen J. McWilliam, Daniel J. Antoine*, Venkata Sabbisetti, Robin E. Pearce, Andrea L. Jorgensen, Yvonne Lin, J. Steven Leeder, Joseph V. Bonventre, Rosalind L. Smyth, Munir Pirmohamed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals in healthy children for two novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Materials & Methods: Urinary biomarkers were determined in samples from children in the UK (n = 120) and the USA (n = 171) using both Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Luminex-based analytical approaches. Results: 95% reference intervals for each biomarker in each cohort are presented and stratified by sex or ethnicity where necessary, and age-related variability is explored using quantile regression. We identified consistently higher NGAL concentrations in females than males (p <0.0001), and lower KIM-1 concentrations in African-Americans than Caucasians (p = 0.02). KIM-1 demonstrated diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the morning (p <0.001). Conclusion: This is the first report of reference intervals for KIM-1 and NGAL using two analytical methods in a healthy pediatric population in both UK and US-based populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1189-1197
Number of pages9
JournalBiomarkers in medicine
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • KIM-1
  • nephrotoxicity
  • pediatric nephrology
  • proximal tubule
  • ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN
  • REFERENCE VALUES
  • CREATININE
  • AGE
  • ESTABLISHMENT
  • NORMALIZATION
  • POPULATION
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • INFANTS

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