Regulatory Role of Sex Hormones in Cardiovascular Calcification

Holly J Woodward, Dongxing Zhu, Patrick W F Hadoke, Victoria E MacRae

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD), including aortic stenosis, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular calcification, are well documented. High levels of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular calcification, whilst estrogen, the primary female sex hormone, is considered cardioprotective. Current understanding of sexual dimorphism in cardiovascular calcification is still very limited. This review assesses the evidence that the actions of sex hormones influence the development of cardiovascular calcification. We address the current question of whether sex hormones could play a role in the sexual dimorphism seen in cardiovascular calcification, by discussing potential mechanisms of actions of sex hormones and evidence in pre-clinical research. More advanced investigations and understanding of sex hormones in calcification could provide a better translational outcome for those suffering with cardiovascular calcification.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2021

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • calcification
  • testosterone
  • estrogen
  • atherosclerosis
  • aortic valve


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