Reproductive Factors and Risk of Breast Cancer by Tumor Subtypes among Ghanaian Women: A Population-based Case-control Study

Jonine Figueroa, Brittny C Davis Lynn , Lawrence Edusei, Nicholas Titiloye, Ernest Adjei, Joe Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joel Yarney, Beatrice Wiafe-Addai, Baffour Awuah, Maire A. Duggan, Seth Wiafe, Kofi Nyarko, Francis Aitpillah, Daniel Ansong, Stephen M. Hewitt, Thomas Ahearn, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Louise A Brinton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Higher proportions of early-onset and estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancers are observed in women of African ancestry than in women of European ancestry. Differences in risk factor distributions and associations by age at diagnosis and ER status may explain this disparity. We analyzed data from1,126 cases (aged 18-74 years) with invasive breast cancer and 2,106 controls recruited from a population-based case-control study in Ghana. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for menstrual and reproductive factors using polytomous logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Among controls, medians for age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and breastfeeding/pregnancy were 15 years, 4 births, 20 years, and 18 months, respectively. For women ≥50 years, parity and extended breastfeeding were associated with decreased risks: >5 births vs. nulliparous, OR 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.83) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.51-0.98) for ≥19 vs. <13 breastfeeding months/pregnancy, which did not differ by ER. In contrast, for earlier onset cases (<50 years) parity was associated with increased risk for ER-negative tumors (P-heterogeneity by ER = 0.02), which was offset by extended breastfeeding. Similar associations were observed by intrinsic-like subtypes. Less consistent relationships were observed with ages at menarche and first birth. Reproductive risk factor distributions are different from European populations but exhibited etiologic heterogeneity by age at diagnosis and ER status similar to other populations. Differences in reproductive patterns and subtype heterogeneity are consistent with racial disparities in subtype distributions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Early online date18 Feb 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Feb 2020


Dive into the research topics of 'Reproductive Factors and Risk of Breast Cancer by Tumor Subtypes among Ghanaian Women: A Population-based Case-control Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this