Resolution of, and risk of incident non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with changes in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D status

Yejin Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu, In Young Cho, Min-Jung Kwon, Won Sohn, Mi Kyung Kim, Sarah H Wild, Christopher D Byrne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Context: A protective or causative role of vitamin D status on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains inconclusive.
Objective: To evaluate the association between changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status during follow-up and the risk of incident NAFLD and resolution of pre-existing NAFLD
Design: A retrospective cohort study
Setting: Kangbuk Samsung Health Study based on routine health screening examinations
Participants: Korean adults (mean age, 36.8 years; range, 18–96 years) who underwent comprehensive health examinations including assessment of serum 25(OH)D levels
Main Outcome Measures: The main outcomes were a) incidence and b) resolution of NAFLD assessed by liver ultrasound. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes according to serum 25(OH)D levels.
Results: Among 139,599 participants without NAFLD at baseline, 27,531 developed NAFLD during follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and inversely associated with NAFLD development. Among 48,702 participants with NAFLD at baseline, 13,449 showed NAFLD resolution. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for NAFLD resolution comparing 25(OH)D 10–<20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL to <10 ng/mL were 1.09 (1.03–1.15), 1.13 (1.06–1.21), and 1.21 (1.09–1.35), respectively. Additionally, an increase in 25(OH)D levels between baseline and the subsequent visit (median, 1.8 years) was associated with decreased NAFLD incidence, while persistently adequate 25(OH)D levels over time was associated with decreased incidence and increased resolution of NAFLD.
Conclusions: Maintaining adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations may be beneficial for both prevention as well as resolution of NAFLD.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Early online date23 Apr 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Apr 2022

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