Resource-efficient and economically viable pyrometallurgical processing of industrial ferrous by-products

Efthymios Balomenos*, Ioanna Giannopoulou, Dimitrios Gerogiorgis, Dimitrios Panias, Ioannis Paspaliaris

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work outlines an integrated methodology for converting metallurgical by-products into high added value products, through an essentially zero-waste process. Thermodynamic modelling and conceptual design for processing bauxite residues (red mud) from the primary aluminium industry and ferro-nickel production slags are presented as examples. Furthermore, results of semiindustrial scale experiments for processing bauxite residues are illustrated, along with a preliminary financial analysis and an exergy flowsheet of the new conceptual alumina refinery, all confirming the financial viability as well as the resource-efficient utilization of the proposed technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-342
Number of pages10
JournalWaste and Biomass Valorization
Issue number3
Early online date22 Nov 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2014


  • Bauxite residues
  • Exergy efficiency
  • Industrial by-products
  • Mineral wool
  • Pyrometallurgy
  • Red mud
  • Slag


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