Retrospective evaluation of systemic hypertension in dogs with non-associative (primary) immune mediated hemolytic anemia

Georgina Hall, David Q. Stoye, Emily Thomas, Geoff Culshaw

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Objective: Primary aim: To report the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a population of dogs with non-associative immune mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) on presentation and during hospitalization. Secondary aim: To determine the relationships of systolic blood pressure (SBP) with mortality and a prognostic indicator, the canine hemolytic anemia objective score. Design:Retrospective observational study (December 2016-April 2019).Setting: University teaching hospital.Animals:26 clinical dogs presenting to the ICU (intensive care unit) with non-associative (primary) IMHA and a control group of 23 clinical dogs with idiopathic epilepsy hospitalized in the ICU for seizure treatment or monitoring. Interventions: None Measurements and Main Results: Hypertension was defined as SBP 160mmHg and severe hypertension 180mmHg. . Mean SBP was significantly elevated in IMHA dogs (161mmHg SD 21) compared to ICU control dogs (138mmHg SD 14; P<0.005). Hypertension was present in 13/26 (50.0%) dogs across the period of hospitalization and was severe in 3/26 (11.5%). During at least one day of hospitalization 18/26 (69.2%) dogs were hypertensive and 8/26 (34.6%) were severely hypertensive). Hypertension was not associated with short-term mortality or canine hemolytic anemia objective score.Conclusions: In this retrospective study, hypertension was more prevalent in dogs with non-associative IMHA than a control population of ICU-hospitalized dogs. An association between auto-immune conditions and hypertension has been previously reported in people, but not within a canine population. Hypertension in dogs may have an inflammatory or auto-immune etiology. SBP should be monitored closely in canine IMHA, in case anti-hypertensive treatment is required.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Early online date25 Jan 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Jan 2022


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