Revising Properties of Planet-Host Binary Systems. III. There Is No Observed Radius Gap for Kepler Planets in Binary Star Systems

Kendall Sullivan*, Adam L. Kraus, Daniel Huber, Erik A. Petigura, Elise Evans, Trent Dupuy, Jingwen Zhang, Travis A. Berger, Eric Gaidos, Andrew W. Mann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Binary stars are ubiquitous; the majority of solar-type stars exist in binaries. Exoplanet occurrence rate is suppressed in binaries, but some multiples do still host planets. Binaries cause observational biases in planet parameters, with undetected multiplicity causing transiting planets to appear smaller than they truly are. We have analyzed the properties of a sample of 119 planet-host binary stars from the Kepler mission to study the underlying population of planets in binaries that fall in and around the radius valley, which is a demographic feature in period-radius space that marks the transition from predominantly rocky to predominantly gaseous planets. We found no statistically significant evidence for a radius gap for our sample of 122 planets in binaries when assuming that the primary stars are the planet hosts, with a low probability (p < 0.05) of the binary planet sample radius distribution being consistent with the single-star population of small planets via an Anderson-Darling test. These results reveal demographic differences in the planet size distribution between planets in binary and single stars for the first time, showing that stellar multiplicity may fundamentally alter the planet formation process. A larger sample and further assessment of circumprimary versus circumsecondary transits is needed to either validate this nondetection or explore other scenarios, such as a radius gap with a location that is dependent on binary separation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number177
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume165
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • LOW-MAS STARS
  • STELLAR PROPERTIES
  • FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES
  • EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE
  • FORMATION HISTORY
  • MESA ISOCHRONES
  • UPPER SCORPIUS
  • SURVEY.111
  • SUPER-EARTHS

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