Rilpivirine exposure in plasma and sanctuary site compartments after switching from nevirapine-containing combined antiretroviral therapy

Borja Mora-Peris, Victoria Watson, Jaime H Vera, Rosy Weston, Adam D Waldman, Steve Kaye, Saye Khoo, Nicola E Mackie, David Back, Alan Winston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

OBJECTIVES: Pharmacokinetic parameters following modifications to antiretroviral therapy and sanctuary site exposure are often unknown for recently licensed antiretrovirals. We assessed plasma, CSF and seminal plasma (SP) exposure of rilpivirine after switching from nevirapine.

METHODS: HIV-infected male subjects receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine/nevirapine (245/200/400 mg) once daily switched to tenofovir/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (245/200/25 mg) once daily for 60 days when CSF and semen samples were collected. Mean and individual plasma concentrations of nevirapine and rilpivirine were compared with the proposed plasma target concentration for nevirapine (3000 ng/mL) and the protein binding-adjusted EC90 for rilpivirine (12.1 ng/mL). Mean rilpivirine CSF and SP concentrations were calculated and individual values compared with the EC50 and EC90 for wild-type virus (0.27 and 0.66 ng/mL, respectively).

RESULTS: Of 13 subjects completing study procedures including CSF examination, 8 provided seminal samples. By day 3, the mean plasma rilpivirine trough concentration was 29.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.8-37). No patient presented rilpivirine plasma concentrations under the proposed threshold. The mean rilpivirine concentration in CSF was 0.8 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.7-1.0), representing a CSF : plasma ratio of 1.4%, with concentrations above the EC90 in 85% (11/13) of patients. In SP, the mean rilpivirine concentration was 4.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.3-7.2), representing an SP : plasma ratio of 9.5%, with all concentrations above the EC90.

CONCLUSIONS: Switching from nevirapine- to rilpivirine-containing antiretroviral therapy was safe and well tolerated, with plasma rilpivirine concentrations above the protein binding-adjusted EC90 in all subjects. Rilpivirine concentrations were always above the EC50 in the CSF and the EC90 in SP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1642-7
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2014

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Drug Substitution
  • HIV Infections
  • HIV-1
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nevirapine
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrimidines
  • Rilpivirine
  • Semen
  • Viral Load
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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