Risk of CKD Following Detection of Microscopic Hematuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Yoo Jin Um, Yoosoo Chang*, Yejin Kim, Min-Jung Kwon, Hyun-Suk Jung, Kyu-Beck Lee, Kwan Joong Joo, In Young Cho, Sarah H Wild, Christopher D Byrne, Seungho Ryu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rationale & Objective: Microscopic hematuria is an uncertain risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association between persistent or single episodes of microscopic hematuria and the development of incident CKD overall and separately among men and women.
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting and Participants: A total of 232,220 Korean adults without CKD at baseline who underwent repeated regular health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Health Study formed the study cohort.
Exposure: Microscopic hematuria was defined by ≥5 red blood cells per high-power field. Participants were categorized into one of four groups according to the presence of hematuria at two consecutive examinations: a) no hematuria at both examinations (reference group); b) hematuria followed by no hematuria (regressed hematuria group); c) no hematuria followed by hematuria (developed hematuria group); and d) hematuria at both examinations (persistent hematuria).
Outcome: CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria defined as 1+ or more on dipstick examination.
Analytical Approach: Semi-parametric proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (95%CIs).
Results: During a 4.8-year median follow-up, 2,392 participants developed CKD. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for incident CKD, comparing the “regressed,” “developed,” and “persistent” hematuria groups to the “no hematuria” group were 1.85 (1.35–2.53), 3.18 (2.54–3.98), and 5.23 (4.15–6.59), respectively. The association between persistent hematuria and incident CKD was stronger in men than women (Pinteraction < 0.001), although a significant association was observed in both sexes.
Limitations: Lack of albuminuria and inability to consider specific glomerular diseases.
Conclusion: Men and women with microscopic hematuria, especially persistent hematuria, may be at increased risk of CKD.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Early online date4 Nov 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Nov 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk of CKD Following Detection of Microscopic Hematuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this