RNA-Associated Early-Stage Antiviral Factor Is a Major Component of Lv2 Restriction

Kelly Marno, Eithne O'Sullivan, Christopher Jones, Julieta Diaz-Delfin, Claire Pardieu, Richard D. Sloan, Áine McKnight

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in human cells is restricted at early postentry steps by host inhibitory factors. We previously described and characterized an early-phase restriction of HIV-1 and -2 replication in human cell lines, primary macrophages, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The restriction was termed lentiviral restriction 2 (Lv2). The viral determinants of Lv2 susceptibility mapped to the HIV-2 envelope (Env) and capsid (CA). We subsequently reported a whole-genome small interfering RNA screening for factors involved in HIV that identified RNA-associated early-stage antiviral factor (REAF). Using HIV-2 chimeras of susceptible and nonsusceptible viruses, we show here that REAF is a major component of the previously described Lv2 restriction. Further studies of the viral CA demonstrate that the CA mutation I73V (previously called I207V), a potent determinant for HIV-2, is a weak determinant of susceptibility for HIV-1. More potent CA determinants for HIV-1 REAF restriction were identified at P38A, N74D, G89V, and G94D. These results firmly establish that in HIV-1, CA is a strong determinant of susceptibility to Lv2/REAF. Similar to HIV-2, HIV-1 Env can rescue sensitive CAs from restriction. We conclude that REAF is a major component of the previously described Lv2 restriction.IMPORTANCE Measures taken by the host cell to combat infection drive the evolution of pathogens to counteract or sidestep them. The study of such virus-host conflicts can point to possible weaknesses in the arsenal of viruses and may lead to the rational design of antiviral agents. Here we describe our discovery that the host restriction factor REAF fulfills the same criteria previously used to describe lentiviral restriction (Lv2). We show that, like the HIV-2 CA, the CA of HIV-1 is a strong determinant of Lv2/REAF susceptibility. We illustrate how HIV counteracts Lv2/REAF by using an envelope with alternative routes of entry into cells.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number10
Early online date8 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2017


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