Rolling rhythms in front crawl swimming with six-beat kick

Ross Sanders, Stelios Psycharakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The purpose of this study was to establish the rhythm characteristics of skilled front crawl swimmers using a six-beat kick. These included the amplitudes of the first three Fourier harmonics (H1, H2, H3) and their percent contributions to power contained in the angular displacement signals of the shoulders, hips, knees, and ankles with respect to the longitudinal axis in line with the swimming direction. Three-dimensional video data of seven national/international level swimmers were collected during simulated 200 m front crawl races in which swimmers maintained six-beat kicking patterns. Swimmers differed in all variables but had small variability across the four 50 m laps. Modest changes occurred during the 200 m, with the exception of shoulder roll, which remained constant and was represented almost entirely by a single sinusoid (H1). Changes across laps reached significance for swimming speed, stroke rate, hip roll, and H3 wave velocity between the knee and ankle. A H3 body wave of moderate and increasing velocity travelled caudally from hip to ankle. In the light of existing knowledge of aquatic locomotion this was compatible with the goal of generating propulsion in an efficient manner
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-279
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Body roll
  • Body waves
  • Fourier
  • Rythms
  • Swimming


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