Roots of animosity: Bonn's reaction to US pressures in nuclear proliferation

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The animosity between Jimmy Carter and Helmut Schmidt is legendary. One crisis, however, which was arguably largely responsible for setting the tone of this relationship has been mostly forgotten: the debate over the German–Brazilian agreement on nuclear co-operation, which envisioned the export of a full nuclear fuel cycle to Brazil. Analysing this crisis not only allows us to examine both countries’ approach to nuclear proliferation in the 1970s, but also their attitude towards transatlantic relations. The crisis showcases the changed international environment of the late 1970s, a weakened United States, an emboldened Germany, and the potential and pitfalls of a ‘uniting’ European continent.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-301
JournalInternational History Review
Issue number2
Early online date20 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2014


  • history of US foreign relations
  • international history
  • cultural history
  • history of German foreign relations
  • nuclear non-proliferation


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