Ruthenium(II) Arene Anticancer Complexes with Redox-Active Diamine Ligands

Tijana Bugarcic, Abraha Habtemariam, Robert J. Deeth, Francesca P. A. Fabbiani, Simon Parsons, Peter J. Sadler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The synthesis and characterization of ruthenium(II) arene complexes of the general formula [(eta(6)-arene)Ru(XY)Z](+), where arene = p-cymene (p-cym), hexamethyl benzene (hmb), or biphenyl (bip), XY = o-phenylenediamine (o-pda), o-benzoquinonediimine (o-bqdi), or 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine (dmpda), and Z = Cl, Br, or l, are reported (complexes 1-6). In addition, the X-ray crystal structures of [(eta(6)-p-cym)Ru(o-pda)Cl]PF6 (1) and [(eta(6)-hmb)Ru-(o-bqdi)Cl]PF6 (3PF(6)) are described. The Ru-N distances in 3PF(6) are significantly shorter [2.033(4) and 2.025(4) angstrom] compared to those in 1 [2.141(2) and 2.156(2) angstrom], All of the imine complexes (3-5) exhibit a characteristic broad H-1 NMR NH resonance at ca. delta 14-15. Complex 1 undergoes concomitant ligand-based oxidation and hydrolysis (38% after 24 h) in water. The oxidation also occurs in methanol. The iodido complex [(eta(6)-p-cym)Ru(o-bqdi)l]l (4) did not undergo hydrolysis, whereas the chlorido complex 3 showed relatively fast hydrolysis (t(1/2) = 7.5 min). Density functional theory calculations showed that the total bonding energy of 9-EtG in [(eta(6)-p-cym)Ru(o-pda)(9-EtG-N7)](2+) (1EtG) is 23.8 kJ/mol lower than that in [(eta(6)-p-cym)Ru(o-bqdi)(9-EtG-N7)](2+) (3EtG). The greater bonding energy is related to the contribution from strong hydrogen bonding between the NH proton of the chelating ligand and O6 of 9-EtG (1.69 angstrom). A loss of cytotoxic activity was observed upon oxidation of the amine ligand to an imine (e.g., IC50 = 11 mu M for 1 and IC50 > 100 mu M for 3, against A2780 ovarian cancer cells). The relationship between the cytotoxic activity and the solution and solid state structures of the imine and amine complexes is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9444-9453
Number of pages10
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 5 Oct 2009


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