Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

Michail H Karavolos, David M Bulmer, Hannah Spencer, Giordano Rampioni, Ira Schmalen, Stephen Baker, Derek Pickard, Joe Gray, Maria Fookes, Klaus Winzer, Alasdair Ivens, Gordon Dougan, Paul Williams, C M Anjam Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-8
Number of pages7
JournalEMBO Reports
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Salmonella typhi
  • Hormones
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Propranolol
  • Norepinephrine
  • Hemolysis
  • Protein Kinases
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Epinephrine
  • Signal Transduction
  • Stress, Physiological


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