Scalable fabrication of hemispherical solid immersion lenses in silicon carbide through grayscale hard-mask lithography

Christiaan Bekker, Muhammad Junaid Arshad, Pasquale Cilibrizzi, Charalampos Nikolatos, Peter Lomax, Graham Wood, Rebecca Cheung, Wolfgang Knolle, Neil Ross, Brian D. Gerardot, Cristian Bonato

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Grayscale lithography allows the creation of micrometer-scale features with spatially controlled height in a process that is fully compatible with standard lithography. Here, solid immersion lenses are demonstrated in silicon carbide using a fabrication protocol combining grayscale lithography and hard-mask techniques to allow nearly hemispherical lenses of 5 μ m radius to be etched into the substrate. Lens performance was benchmarked by studying the enhancement obtained in the optical collection efficiency for single quantum emitters hosted in silicon carbide. Enhancement by a factor of 4.4 ± 1.0 was measured for emitters not registered to the center of the lens, consistent with devices fabricated through other methods. The grayscale hard-mask technique is highly reproducible, scalable, and compatible with CMOS technology, and device aspect ratios can be tuned after resist patterning by controlling the chemistry of the subsequent dry etch. These results provide a reproducible, low-cost, high-throughput and industrially relevant alternative to focused ion beam milling for the creation of high-aspect-ratio, rounded microstructures for quantum technology, and microphotonic applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number173507
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume122
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2023

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