Abstract / Description of output
Grayscale lithography allows the creation of micrometer-scale features with spatially controlled height in a process that is fully compatible with standard lithography. Here, solid immersion lenses are demonstrated in silicon carbide using a fabrication protocol combining grayscale lithography and hard-mask techniques to allow nearly hemispherical lenses of 5 μ m radius to be etched into the substrate. Lens performance was benchmarked by studying the enhancement obtained in the optical collection efficiency for single quantum emitters hosted in silicon carbide. Enhancement by a factor of 4.4 ± 1.0 was measured for emitters not registered to the center of the lens, consistent with devices fabricated through other methods. The grayscale hard-mask technique is highly reproducible, scalable, and compatible with CMOS technology, and device aspect ratios can be tuned after resist patterning by controlling the chemistry of the subsequent dry etch. These results provide a reproducible, low-cost, high-throughput and industrially relevant alternative to focused ion beam milling for the creation of high-aspect-ratio, rounded microstructures for quantum technology, and microphotonic applications.