Scaleable Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Structures in Nanometer CMOS Technology

J. Richardson, E.A.G. Webster, L. A. Grant, Robert Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode offer exceptional time resolution and optical sensitivity. Implementation in modern nanometer-scale complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies to create dense high-resolution arrays requires a device structure that is scaleable down to a few micrometers. A family of three SPAD structures with sub-100-Hz mean dark count rate (DCR) is proposed in 130-nm CMOS image sensor technology. Based on a novel retrograde buried n-well guard ring, these detectors are shown to readily scale from 32 to 2 μm with improving DCR, jitter, and yield. One of these detectors is compatible with standard triple-well digital CMOS, and the others bring the first low-DCR realizations at the 130-nm node of shallow-trench-isolation-bounded and enhancement SPADs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2028-2035
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2011

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Biomedical imaging
  • complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
  • (CMOS) integrated circuits
  • image sensors
  • p-n junctions
  • photodetectors
  • photodiodes


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