The role of combustion research in fire safety is revisited through the process of Scaling-Up fire. Scaling-Up fire requires the adequate definition of all the building blocks and couplings associated with the construction of a fire model. The model then has to deliver predictions of the evolution of a fire and its environment with the precision, completeness and robustness relevant to fire safety. Areas of combustion research relevant to the development of fire models emerge from an assessment of methodology, complexity, incompatibility and uncertainty associated to the Scaling-Up process. (C) 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.