Scarifying and fingering surfaces of plunging jets

A. Saruwatari, Y. Watanabe, David Ingram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The local surface deformation resulting from the oblique impact of a columnar water jet has been computed, using a three-dimensional large eddy simulation, as a model of the overturning jet of a breaking wave. The emergence of the secondary jet from the front face of the initial jet has been examined and the organisation of the vortices within the jet characterised. As the secondary jet emerges, the vorticity field becomes unstable under the action of the strong shear beneath the jetsurface and pairs of longitudinal counter-rotating vortices stretched along the direction of the jet projection are formed. The presence of these longitudinal vortex pairs creates convergent surface flows, resulting in the formation of longitudinal scars on the rear face of the projecting jet. Following significant growth of the scars on both its upper and lower surfaces, the jet decouples into fingers. The lateral widths of the longitudinal vortices provide a minimum measure of the finger size. A horizontal Froude number Frh, representing a measure of strength of horizontal shear in a gravity-dominated impacting flow is defined, which characterises the organisation of the longitudinal vortices occurring in the shear flow, and the resultant formation of scars and fingers. For higher Frh, stronger longitudinal vortices and deeper scars are formed at longer lateral intervals, enhancing the fingering process during the splashing event. Fundamental features of material transport in the vicinity of the surface of jets (e.g. gas transfer across a sea surface) are related to the entrainment of surface fluid by the longitudinal vortices, and is thus also characterised by Frh.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1109–1122
Number of pages14
JournalCoastal Engineering
Volume56
Issue number11-12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009

Keywords

  • Wave breaking
  • Vortex structure
  • Scar
  • Large eddy simulation

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