Projects per year
Seasonal thermal energy storage can provide flexibility to smart energy systems and are characterised by low cost per unit energy capacity and varying applicability to different geographical and geological locations. This paper identifies applications and reviews modelling approaches for seasonal thermal energy storage technologies in the context of their integration in smart energy systems. An example district-scale smart energy system is outlined to analyse three potential smart applications for seasonal thermal energy storage: (i) utilisation of multiple renewable energy sources, (ii) integrating waste heat and cool, and (iii) electrical network balancing. The rest of the paper focuses on modelling methods for borehole thermal energy storage and aquifer thermal energy storage in energy system analysis. Energy system tools for planning and detailed design stages are reviewed. Gaps are identified for planning tools in control strategies and open code. TRNSYS is found to be the dominant detailed design tool used to model large-scale borehole thermal energy storage. Co-simulation methods involving detailed physics and power system tools are also reviewed, including studies using co-simulation of a detailed physics tool to represent borehole or aquifer thermal energy storage alongside an energy system tool. A gap exists in co-simulation of borehole or aquifer thermal energy storage models with energy system tools capable of simulating both electricity and heat. In conclusion, seasonal thermal energy storage can provide flexibility through different smart applications at different scales, and modelling approaches using co-simulation methods offer a promising avenue for capturing potential benefits of these smart applications.
- Seasonal thermal energy storage
- Smart energy systems
- Aquifer thermal energy storage
- Borehole thermal energy storage
- Energy system modelling
- Co-simulation methods