OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to establish protein profiles in serum and nasal epithelial cells of cystic fibrosis individuals in comparison with controls, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients for specific biomarker signatures identification. DESIGN AND METHODS: Protein extracts were analyzed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). RESULTS: The mass spectra revealed a set of peaks with differential expression in serum and nasal cells among the different groups studied, resulting into peak signatures representative/specific of each pathology. Logistic regressions were applied to those peaks; sensitivity, specificity, Youden's indexes and area under the curve (AUC) of the respective receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. DISCUSSION: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that combination of peaks has a better predictive value than the individual ones. These protein signatures may serve as diagnostic/prognostic markers for the studied diseases with common clinical features, or as follow-up assessment markers of therapeutic interventions.