Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in many countries and responsible for significant perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has been the mainstay of efforts to prevent early-onset GBS disease in recent decades, however it is unclear if women should be targeted based on the presence of clinical risk factors or by screening for GBS colonisation during pregnancy. Universal bacteriological screening of women in late pregnancy has been widely adopted but questions remain regarding its benefits and potential harms. Newer approaches to screening based on rapid point-of-care testing require further evaluation in randomised controlled trials to inform evidence-based practice. Given current preventive strategies do not protect against late onset disease and other sequelae of infection, maternal vaccination against GBS may present the best opportunity to reduce the global burden of invasive GBS disease in the future.