The protozoan Neospora caninum is a primary infectious cause of abortion in cattle that causes significant economic losses worldwide. As effective vaccines and licensed pharmacological treatments are currently unavailable, control measures rely on biosecurity and management practice. Serological diagnosis plays a crucial role in the identification of infected animals and a number of tests have been developed. However, due to the particular dynamics of the host-parasite interaction and to the characteristics of the currently used diagnostic tools, a proportion of infected cattle may not be reliably identified and can potentially undermine efforts towards the control of bovine neosporosis. Here, current diagnostic methods for N. caninum infection in cattle and the advancements required to support effective control strategies are discussed.