OBJECTIVES: A range of cardiovascular abnormalities have been associated with anaemia. However, it remains unclear whether anaemia is associated with cardiac myocyte damage in cats. The aim of this study was to assess if cats with anaemia have an increased prevalence of cardiac myocyte damage, as assessed by serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I, compared to non-anaemic, ill cats. METHODS: Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 18 anaemic cats and in 31 non-anaemic, ill cats with non-primary cardiac, non-renal and non-primary haematological disorders. RESULTS: The serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in the anaemic group (0·43ng/mL) were significantly higher (P=0·0002) than in the non-anaemic ill group (0·04 ng/mL). Using a cut-off of less than 0·16 ng/mL, 12 of the 18 anaemic cats had an increased serum cardiac troponin I concentration, which was significantly higher (P=0·005) than the non-anaemic ill cats (7 of 31 cats). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations were higher in cats with anaemia in this study. Further studies are required to establish whether the anaemia or other confounding factors is the cause of the increased serum cardiac troponin I concentrations.