Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is a tumor-derived circulating factor that has been associated with hypercalcemia of malignancy. The role of PTHrP as a prognostic indicator remains unclear. Studies suggest that it may function as a growth factor; and, recently, the ability of PTHrP to induce cytokine expression has been described. PTHrP also has been proposed as a procachectic factor. In this study, the authors investigated the prognostic value of PTHrP in patients who had gastroesophageal carcinoma without hypercalcemia and determined whether PTHrP was associated with systemic inflammation and adverse nutritional status.