Sex differences in the association of vitamin D and metabolic risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents

Indah K Murni, Dian C Sulistyoningrum, Danijela Gasevic, Rina Susilowati, Madarina Julia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that vitamin D is associated with obesity and the development of atherosclerosis. Less is known about this association among adolescents with obesity.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of vitamin D level and metabolic risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) among obese adolescents.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among obese children aged 15 to 17 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The association of vitamin D and other metabolic risk factors (triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) with CIMT was explored by multivariable linear regression models.

RESULTS: Out of 156 obese adolescents, 55.8% were boys. Compared to girls, boys had higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, and HDL-cholesterol. After adjustment for age, sex and second-hand smoke exposure, high HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were associated with higher odds of elevated CIMT. In analyses stratified by sex, a similar trend was observed in boys, while none of the risk factors were associated with CIMT in girls. We observed no association between vitamin D and CIMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemia, higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were associated with greater odds of elevated CIMT among obese adolescent boys.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0258617
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume16
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2021

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