Sex estimation using cervical dental measurements in an archaeological population from Iran

Seyedeh Mandan Kazzazi, Elena Kranioti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sex estimation of skeletal remains is one of the major components of forensic identification of unknown individuals. Teeth are a potential source of information on sex and are often recovered in archaeological or forensic contexts due to their post-mortem longevity. Currently there is limited data on dental sexual dimorphism of archaeological populations from Iran. This paper represents the first study to provide a dental sex estimation method for Iron Age populations.
The current study was conducted on the skeletal remains of 143 adults from two Iron Age populations in close temporal and geographic proximity in the Solduz Valley (West Azerbaijan Province of Iran). Mesiodistal and buccolingual cervical measurements of 1334 maxillary and mandibular teeth were used to investigate the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent dentition and to assess their applicability in sex estimation. Data was analysed using discriminant function analysis (SPSS 23) and posterior probabilities were calculated for all produced formulae.
The results showed that incisors and canines were the most sexually dimorphic teeth, providing percentages of correct sex classification between 86.4% and 100% depending on the measurement used. The combination of canines and other teeth improved significantly the level of correct sex classification. The highest percentages of sex classification were obtained by the combination of canines and incisors (100%) and canines and molars (92.3%).
The present study provided the first reference standards for sex estimation using odontometric data in an Iranian archaeological population. Cervical measurements were found to be of value for sex assessment and the method presented here can be a useful tool for establishing accurate demographic data from skeletal remains of the Iron Age from Iran.
Original languageEnglish
JournalArchaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Early online date6 Aug 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Aug 2016


  • cervical mesiodistal
  • sexual dimorphism
  • cervical buccolingual


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