Sexual dimorphism of the calcaneus in contemporary Cretans

Despoina Nathena, Effrossyni Michopoulou, Elena Kranioti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


During the past decade, several studies have been carried out using the calcaneus bone for sex estimation. This paper collected data using ten variables for metric characteristics of the calcaneus of 144 modern Cretans and examined their correlation with known sex. Secondly, the formulae developed by Peckmann et al. (2015) for modern Athenians was put to the test in order to investigate if it could be applied to this modern Cretan sample as well. Results showed a high correlation between the calcaneus metrics and the known sex of the individuals, however the formulae for Athenians do not seem to be suitable for the Cretans due to the high sex bias reported in this study. Thus, new standards were created for sex estimation from the calacanei in our sample. Bilateral asymmetry was noted in the majority of cases, thus formulae were developed for left, right and mean values. Maximum width (MAXW) was the variable that performed the best in the Cretan sample. Overall, the cross-validated accuracies for univariate and multivariate equations reached 84.2% with males most often correctly identified. The calcaneus was proved to be useful for sex estimation in this modern Cretan population. Further work will explore the suitability of the produced standards for other regions of mainland Greece and islands.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260.e1-260.e8
JournalForensic Science International
Early online date15 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017


  • Forensic Anthropology population data
  • calcaneus
  • sex estimation
  • Crete
  • Greece


Dive into the research topics of 'Sexual dimorphism of the calcaneus in contemporary Cretans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this