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Platinum and palladium are much sought-after metals of critical global importance in terms of abundance and availability. At the nano-scale these metals are of even higher value due to their catalytic abilities for industrial applications. Desulfovibrio alaskensis is able to capture ionic forms of both of these metals, reduce them and synthesize elemental nanoparticles. Despite this ability, very little is known about the biological pathways involved in the formation of these nanoparticles. Proteomic analysis of D. alaskensis in response to platinum and palladium has highlighted those proteins involved in both the reductive pathways and the wider stress-response system. A core set of 13 proteins was found in both treatments and consisted of proteins involved in metal transport and reduction. There were also seven proteins that were specific to either platinum or palladium. Overexpression of one of these platinum-specific genes, a NiFe hydrogenase small subunit (Dde_2137), resulted in the formation of larger nanoparticles. This study improves our understanding of the pathways involved in the metal resistance mechanism of Desulfovibrio and is informative regarding how we can tailor the bacterium for nanoparticle production, enhancing its application as a bioremediation tool and as a way to capture contaminant metals from the environment.