Simulating Multiple Character Interactions with Collaborative and Adversarial Goals

H.P.H. Shum, T. Komura, S. Yamazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper proposes a new methodology for synthesizing animations of multiple characters, allowing them to intelligently compete with one another in dense environments, while still satisfying requirements set by an animator. To achieve these two conflicting objectives simultaneously, our method separately evaluates the competition and collaboration of the interactions, integrating the scores to select an action that maximizes both criteria. We extend the idea of min-max search, normally used for strategic games such as chess. Using our method, animators can efficiently produce scenes of dense character interactions such as those in collective sports or martial arts. The method is especially effective for producing animations along story lines, where the characters must follow multiple objectives, while still accommodating geometric and kinematic constraints from the environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-752
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • collaborative goal
  • interaction competition
  • min-max search
  • multiple character animation synthesis
  • Motion segmentation
  • martial arts
  • Computational modeling
  • Electronic mail
  • character interaction.
  • adversarial goal
  • Equations
  • Animation
  • interaction collaboration
  • geometric constraint
  • Character animation
  • dense character interaction
  • search problems
  • animation production
  • kinematic constraint
  • minimax techniques
  • multiple character interaction simulation
  • computer animation
  • strategic game
  • Games
  • Optimization
  • collective sports


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