1. We have expressed recombinant NR1a/NR2A and NR1a/NR2D N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels in Xenopus oocytes and made recordings of single-channel and macroscopic currents in outside-out membrane patches. For each receptor type we measured (a) the individual single-channel activations evoked by low glutamate concentrations in steady-state recordings, and (b) the macroscopic responses elicited by brief concentration jumps with high agonist concentrations, and we explore the relationship between these two sorts of observation. 2. Low concentration (5-100 nM) steady-state recordings of NR1a/NR2A and NR1a/NR2D single-channel activity generated shut-time distributions that were best fitted with a mixture of five and six exponential components, respectively. Individual activations of either receptor type were resolved as bursts of openings, which we refer to as 'super-clusters'. 3. During a single activation, NR1a/NR2A receptors were open for 36 % of the time, but NR1a/NR2D receptors were open for only 4 % of the time. For both, distributions of super-cluster durations were best fitted with a mixture of six exponential components. Their overall mean durations were 35.8 and 1602 ms, respectively. 4. Steady-state super-clusters were aligned on their first openings and averaged. The average was well fitted by a sum of exponentials with time constants taken from fits to super-cluster length distributions. It is shown that this is what would be expected for a channel that shows simple Markovian behaviour. 5. The current through NR1a/NR2A channels following a concentration jump from zero to 1 mM glutamate for 1 ms was well fitted by three exponential components with time constants of 13 ms (rising phase), 70 ms and 350 ms (decaying phase). Similar concentration jumps on NR1a/NR2D channels were well fitted by two exponentials with means of 45 ms (rising phase) and 4408 ms (decaying phase) components. During prolonged exposure to glutamate, NR1a/NR2A channels desensitized with a time constant of 649 ms, while NR1a/NR2D channels exhibited no apparent desensitization. 6. We show that under certain conditions, the time constants for the macroscopic jump response should be the same as those for the distribution of super-cluster lengths, though the resolution of the latter is so much greater that it cannot be expected that all the components will be resolvable in a macroscopic current. Good agreement was found for jumps on NR1a/NR2D receptors, and for some jump experiments on NR1a/NR2A. However, the latter were rather variable and some were slower than predicted. Slow decays were associated with patches that had large currents.
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Journal of Physiology|
|Volume||510 ( Pt 1)|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|