Abstract / Description of output
Objective: Personality traits change from childhood through late-adolescence, however the effects of social expectations and self-regulatory efforts remain unknown. This study aims to explore mechanisms underlying personality development by assessing mean levels personality traits from childhood to late-adolescence. Method: We used Common-Language California Child Q-Set to measure youths’ (N=11,000) mean personality trait levels; social expectations for these traits as perceived by parents (N=47), teachers (N=42) and students (N=120); and self-regulatory efforts required for achieving the desired levels in these traits as perceived by parents (N=27), teachers (N=26) and students (N=54). Results: Expectations for youths’ traits were consistent, regardless of raters’ or youths’ age. In our unique between-trait study design, traits’ mean levels were positively associated with expectations for them, but age differences minimally tracked these expectations. Traits’ required self-regulatory efforts were not associated with their developmental trends. Conclusions: Results were only partially consistent with existing developmental theories of personality development.
Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)
- personality development
- personality traits
- social expectations