Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with reduced efficacy of an insulin adjustment education program for people with type 1 diabetes

Callum W D Innes, David E Henshall, Blair Wilson, Michael T C Poon, Steven D Morley, Stuart A Ritchie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

BACKGROUND: The Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) course teaches insulin dose adjustment to match dietary carbohydrates and improve glycaemic control in participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We investigated the association between socioeconomic deprivation and reduction in HbA1c as a marker of sustained glycaemic control, after attending DAFNE education.

METHODS: This retrospective observational study we identified adults with T1DM who attended DAFNE training in NHS Lothian, South East Scotland. We extracted age, sex, postcode-based Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) quintiles and annual HbA1c measurements available four years before and after course attendance. We calculated mean HbA1c before (baseline) and after attendance at DAFNE, across four annual measurements. Change in mean HbA1c (mmol/mol) was categorised into three groups: decrease (≥-2.5), no change (<±2.5), increase (≥+2.5). We used multivariable ordinal logistic regression, with baseline mean HbA1c as a covariate, to investigate the association of SIMD quintile with reduction in mean HbA1c.

RESULTS: 335 participants were included. Age and sex distribution were similar across SIMD quintiles (Mean age=45, range 21-91, 59% women). Lower SIMD quintiles (greater deprivation) had higher baseline mean HbA1c (SIMD 1: 76.0, SIMD 5: 69.0). Higher SIMD quintiles (lower deprivation) were associated with lower odds of no change/increase in mean HbA1c (SIMD 5, odds ratio = 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.10, 0.58, p=0.001, multivariable analysis).

CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with higher baseline mean HbA1c and lower reduction in HbA1c following DAFNE education. Future research could explore causes and how best to support participants from deprived areas.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Early online date18 Jun 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Jun 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • diabetes mellitus
  • diabetes mellitus type 1
  • diet
  • glycated hemoglobin A
  • glycemic control
  • socioeconomic factors


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