Spatial and temporal distribution of Taenia solium and its risk factors in Uganda

Nicholas Ngwili, Derrick N. Sentamu, Max Korir, Moses Adriko, Prudence Beinamaryo, Michel M. Dione, Joyce Moriku Kaducu, Alfred Mubangizi, Pauline Ngina Mwinzi, Lian F. Thomas, Matthew A. Dixon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Objectives: The lack of subnational mapping of the zoonotic cestode Taenia solium in endemic countries presents a major challenge to achieving intensified T. solium control milestones, as outlined in the “World Health Organization neglected tropical disease roadmap by 2030”. We conducted a mapping study in Uganda, considered to be endemic, to identify subnational high-risk areas. Methods: T. solium prevalence data, adjusted for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in a Bayesian framework, were identified through a systematic review. Spatial autocorrelation and interpolation techniques were used to transform demographic and health survey cluster-level sanitation and poverty indicators, overlaid onto a pig density map for Uganda into modelled porcine cysticercosis (PCC) risk maps. Results: A total of 16 articles (n = 11 PCC and n = 5 human cysticercosis (HCC) and/or human taeniasis) were included in the final analysis. The observed HCC prevalence ranged from 0.01% to 6.0% (confidence interval range: 0.004-11.4%), whereas the adjusted PCC ranged from 0.3 to 93.9% (uncertainty interval range: 0-99.8%). There was substantial variation in the modelled PCC risk factors and prevalence across Uganda and over time. Conclusion: The high PCC prevalence and moderate HCC exposure estimates indicate the need for urgent implementation of T. solium control efforts in Uganda.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-284
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Early online date15 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Neglected tropical diseases
  • One Health
  • Risk factor mapping
  • Spatial statistics
  • Taenia solium
  • Zoonotic diseases


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