Spatial, temporal and molecular dynamics of swine influenza virus-specific CD8 tissue resident memory T cells

Veronica Martini, Matthew Edmans, Simon Gubbins, Siddharth Jayaraman, Basudev Paudyal, Sophie Morgan, Adam McNee, Théo Morin, Pramila Rijal, Wilhelm Gerner, Andrew K Sewell, Ryo Inoue, Mick Bailey, Timothy Connelley, Bryan Charleston, Alain Townsend, Peter Beverley, Elma Tchilian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For the first time we have defined naïve, central memory, effector memory and differentiated effector porcine CD8 T cells and analyzed their distribution in lymphoid and respiratory tissues after influenza infection or immunization, using peptide-MHC tetramers of three influenza nucleoprotein (NP) epitopes. The hierarchy of response to the three epitopes changes during the response in different tissues. Most NP-specific CD8 T cells in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and lung are tissue resident memory cells (TRM) that express CD69 and downregulate CD45RA and CCR7. NP-specific cells isolated from BAL express genes characteristic of TRM, but gene expression differs at 7, 21 and 63 days post infection. In all tissues the frequency of NP-specific CD8 cells declines over 63 days almost to background levels but is best maintained in BAL. The kinetic of influenza specific memory CD8 T cell in this natural host species differs from that in small animal models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)428-442
JournalMucosal Immunology
Issue number3
Early online date10 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Animals
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Epitopes
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory
  • Influenza A virus
  • Influenza, Human
  • Memory T Cells
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections
  • Swine


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