Spatio-temporal model-checking of vehicular movement in public transport systems

Vincenzo Ciancia, Stephen Gilmore, Gianluca Griletti, Diego Latella, Michele Loreti, Mieke Massink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present the use of a novel spatio-temporal model-checker to detect problems in the data and operation of a collective adaptive system. Data correctness is important to ensure operational correctness in systems which adapt in response to data. We illustrate the theory with several concrete examples, addressing both the detection of errors in vehicle location data for buses in the city of Edinburgh and the undesirable phenomenon of "clumping" which occurs when there is not enough separation between subsequent buses serving the same route. Vehicle location data is visualised symbolically on a street map, and categories of problems identified by the spatial part of the model-checker are rendered by highlighting the symbols for vehicles or other objects that satisfy a property of interest. Behavioural correctness makes use of both the spatial and temporal aspects of the model-checker to determine from a series of observations of vehicle locations whether the system is failing to meet the expected quality of service demanded by system regulators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-311
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
Issue number3
Early online date24 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Spatio-temporal model-checking
  • Collective adaptive systems
  • Smart transportation


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