Spatiotemporal Electrochemical Sensing in a Smart Contact Lens

Matthew Donora, Andrés Vásquez Quintero, Herbert de Smet, Ian Underwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An electrochemical smart contact lens (ESCL) capable of real-speed spatiotemporal electrochemical sensing across the surface of the eye is demonstrated. Four microelectrode arrays, each comprising 33 gold microdiscs of 30 µm diameter, and a distributed common gold counter electrode, are integrated into a soft smart contact lens platform based on polyimide and thermoplastic polyurethane. Using a novel fast-switching chronoamperometric method, an electrochemical ‘video’ of concentration variation in a model eye under flow conditions is produced, in which the introduction, progress, mixing and drainage of fluid of varying concentration can be observed. The device builds on previous work towards a platform suitable for clinical use and has proven to be robust under expected use conditions, with sensing performance remaining unchanged after thermoforming and repeated mechanical deformation. This work represents a significant step forward in ESCL design, and constitutes significant progress towards a technology with real clinical utility.
Original languageEnglish
Article number127203
JournalSensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Early online date6 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2020


  • smart contact lenses
  • electrochemical sensing
  • non-invasive devices
  • Biosensors
  • microelectrode arrays

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