Introduction: Ventral sulcus spinal cord arteriovenous shunts (SCAVS) are rare vascular lesions that are located outside the spinal cord, are exclusively vascularized by the anterior spinal axis, and drain exclusively through the anterior spinal vein. We report the anatomical, clinical, and neuro-radiological features of SCAVS managed by our team. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with SCAVSs evaluated by the senior author of this report (GR) between 1981 and 2014. Data were collected by reviewing clinical notes and by a systematic analysis of spinal angiograms and MRI. Results: Among 358 patients, we identified 8 patients (3 women) with ventral sulcus spinal cord arteriovenous shunts. Mean age was 30.5 years. Six patients presented with progressive neurological symptoms, and two with acute neurological symptoms related to hematomyelia. Three shunts were located in the cervical cord, four in the thoracic cord, and one at the conus medullaris; there were two nidus type A-V shunts (AVMs) and six fistula type A-V shunts (AVFs). Seven patients were treated by endovascular therapy with glue embolization. Embolization led to anatomical cure in 5 cases, and a significant reduction of shunt volume and flow of more than 75% in 2 cases. In none of the cases we observed permanent morbidity. Conclusions: AVS of the ventral sulcus of the spinal cord are rare. Recognition of these lesions and precise localization of the anatomical space in which they are located, may allow a better understanding of their pathophysiology and clinical manifestations and guide proper therapeutic decisions.
- Anterior spinal artery
- Interventional neuroradiology
- Spinal cord arteriovenous shunts
- Ventral sulcus