Standardization of synthetic biology tools and assembly methods for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and emerging yeast species

Koray Malcl, Emma Watts, Tania Michelle Roberts, Jamie Yam Auxillos, Behnaz Nowrouzi, Heloísa Oss Boll, Cibele Zolnier Sousa Do Nascimento, Andreas Andreou, Peter Vegh, Sophie Donovan, Rennos Fragkoudis, Sven Panke, Edward Wallace, Alistair Elfick, Leonardo Rios-Solis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


As redesigning organisms using engineering principles is one of the purposes of synthetic biology (SynBio), the standardization of experimental methods and DNA parts is becoming increasingly a necessity. The synthetic biology community focusing on the engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been in the foreground in this area, conceiving several well-characterized SynBio toolkits widely adopted by the community. In this review, the molecular methods and toolkits developed for S. cerevisiae are discussed in terms of their contributions to the required standardization efforts. In addition, the toolkits designed for emerging nonconventional yeast species including Yarrowia lipolytica, Komagataella phaffii, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are also reviewed. Without a doubt, the characterized DNA parts combined with the standardized assembly strategies highlighted in these toolkits have greatly contributed to the rapid development of many metabolic engineering and diagnostics applications among others. Despite the growing capacity in deploying synthetic biology for common yeast genome engineering works, the yeast community has a long journey to go to exploit it in more sophisticated and delicate applications like bioautomation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2527-2547
Number of pages21
JournalACS Synthetic Biology
Early online date8 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 19 Aug 2022


  • automation
  • biological parts
  • characterization
  • standardization
  • synthetic biology
  • yeast toolkits


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