Standards for the Characterization of Endurance in Resistive Switching Devices

Mario Lanza*, Rainer Waser, Daniele Ielmini, J. Joshua Yang, Ludovic Goux, Jordi Suñe, Anthony Joseph Kenyon, Adnan Mehonic, Sabina Spiga, Vikas Rana, Stefan Wiefels, Stephan Menzel, Ilia Valov, Marco A. Villena, Enrique Miranda, Xu Jing, Francesca Campabadal, Mireia B. Gonzalez, Fernando Aguirre, Felix PalumboKaichen Zhu, Juan Bautista Roldan, Francesco Maria Puglisi, Luca Larcher, Tuo Hung Hou, Themis Prodromakis, Yuchao Yang, Peng Huang, Tianqing Wan, Yang Chai, Kin Leong Pey, Nagarajan Raghavan, Salvador Dueñas, Tao Wang, Qiangfei Xia, Sebastian Pazos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Resistive switching (RS) devices are emerging electronic components that could have applications in multiple types of integrated circuits, including electronic memories, true random number generators, radiofrequency switches, neuromorphic vision sensors, and artificial neural networks. The main factor hindering the massive employment of RS devices in commercial circuits is related to variability and reliability issues, which are usually evaluated through switching endurance tests. However, we note that most studies that claimed high endurances >106 cycles were based on resistance versus cycle plots that contain very few data points (in many cases even <20), and which are collected in only one device. We recommend not to use such a characterization method because it is highly inaccurate and unreliable (i.e., it cannot reliably demonstrate that the device effectively switches in every cycle and it ignores cycle-to-cycle and device-to-device variability). This has created a blurry vision of the real performance of RS devices and in many cases has exaggerated their potential. This article proposes and describes a method for the correct characterization of switching endurance in RS devices; this method aims to construct endurance plots showing one data point per cycle and resistive state and combine data from multiple devices. Adopting this recommended method should result in more reliable literature in the field of RS technologies, which should accelerate their integration in commercial products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17214-17231
Number of pages18
JournalACS Nano
Issue number11
Early online date3 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2021

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • characterization
  • endurance
  • memory
  • memristor
  • metal-oxide
  • reliability
  • resistive switching
  • variability


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