Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics of respiratory disease in humans, often complicated by secondary co-infection with bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that the S. aureus secreted protein lipase 1 enhances IAV replication in vitro in primary cells, including human lung fibroblasts. The pro-viral activity of lipase 1 is dependent on its enzymatic function, acts late in the viral lifecycle and results in increased infectivity through positive modulation of virus budding. Furthermore, the pro-viral effect of lipase 1 on IAV is exhibited during in vivo infection of embryonated hen’s eggs and importantly, increases the yield of a vaccine strain of IAV by approximately 5-fold. Thus, we have identified the first S. aureus protein to enhance IAV replication, suggesting a potential role in co-infection. Importantly, this activity may be harnessed to address global shortages of influenza vaccines.
|Number of pages||16|
|Early online date||7 Jul 2020|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 7 Jul 2020|
- Influenza A virus
- Staphylococcus aureus
- lipase 1