Structure-kinetic relationships--an overlooked parameter in hit-to-lead optimization: A case of cyclopentylamines as chemokine receptor 2 antagonists

Maris Vilums, Annelien J M Zweemer, Zhiyi Yu, Henk de Vries, Julia M Hillger, Hannah Wapenaar, Ilse A E Bollen, Farhana Barmare, Raymond Gross, Jeremy Clemens, Paul Krenitsky, Johannes Brussee, Dean Stamos, John Saunders, Laura H Heitman, Adriaan P Ijzerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Preclinical models of inflammatory diseases (e.g., neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis) have pointed to a critical role of the chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). However, one of the biggest problems of high-affinity inhibitors of CCR2 is their lack of efficacy in clinical trials. We report a new approach for the design of high-affinity and long-residence-time CCR2 antagonists. We developed a new competition association assay for CCR2, which allows us to investigate the relation of the structure of the ligand and its receptor residence time [i.e., structure-kinetic relationship (SKR)] next to a traditional structure-affinity relationship (SAR). By applying combined knowledge of SAR and SKR, we were able to re-evaluate the hit-to-lead process of cyclopentylamines as CCR2 antagonists. Affinity-based optimization yielded compound 1 with good binding (Ki = 6.8 nM) but very short residence time (2.4 min). However, when the optimization was also based on residence time, the hit-to-lead process yielded compound 22a, a new high-affinity CCR2 antagonist (3.6 nM), with a residence time of 135 min.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7706-14
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume56
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2013

Keywords

  • binding
  • cell Line
  • cyclopentanes
  • humans
  • indans
  • indenes
  • kinetics
  • ligands
  • receptors
  • stereoisomerism
  • structure-activity relationships
  • tetrahydronaphthalenes
  • tumor
  • CR2
  • complement
  • antagonists & inhibitors
  • immunology
  • chemical synthesis

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