Survival and Predictors of Mortality After Completion of TB Treatment among People Living with HIV: A 5-Year Analytical Cohort

Ivan Lumu, Joseph Musaazi, Aggrey Semeere, Ian Handel, Barbara Castelnuovo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Background: After completion of TB treatment patients may remain at risk of co-morbidity and mortality. We determined the survival and predictors of all-cause mortality after completing TB treatment among ART-experienced patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all ART experienced patients who completed TB treatment at a specialist HIV clinic in Uganda, between 2009 and 2014. The patients were followed for five years after TB treatment. We determined the cumulative probability of death, and predictors of mortality using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: A total 1,287 patients completed TB treatment between 2009 and 2014, of which 1,111 were included in the analysis. At TB treatment completion, the median age was 36 years (IQR: 31–42), 563 (50.7%) were males, and median CD4 cell count was 235 cells/mL (IQR: 139–366). The person-time at risk was 4410.60 person-years. The all-cause mortality rate was 15.42 (95% CI: 12.14–19.59) per 1000 person-years. The probability of death at five years was 6.9% (95%CI: 5.5- 8.8). In the multivariable analysis, CD4 count < 200 cells/mL was a predictor of all-cause mortality (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI:1.06–3.11, p = 0.03) alongside history of retreatment (aHR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.16–3.85, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Survival post TB treatment in ART experienced PLHIV is reasonably good. Most deaths occur within two years after TB treatment completion. Patients with a low CD4 count and those with a history of retreatment have an increased risk of mortality which underscores the need for TB prophylaxis, detailed assessment, and close monitoring after completion of TB treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number238
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Early online date18 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Survival
  • Tuberculosis
  • HIV
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • TB treatment completion


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