Provenance studies of widely distributed tephras, integrated within a well-defined temporal framework, are important to deduce systematic changes in the source, scale, distribution and changes in regional explosive volcanism. Here, we establish a robust tephro-chronostratigraphy for a total of 157 marine tephra layers collected during IODP Expedition 352. We infer at least three major phases of highly explosive volcanism during Oligocene to Pleistocene time. Provenance analysis based on glass composition assigns 56 of the tephras to a Japan source, including correlations with 12 major and widespread tephra layers resulting from individual eruptions in Kyushu, Central Japan and North Japan between 115 ka and 3.5 Ma. The remaining 101 tephras are assigned to four source regions along the Izu-Bonin arc. One, of exclusively Oligocene age, is proximal to the Bonin Ridge islands; two reflect eruptions within the volcanic front and back-arc of the central Izu-Bonin arc, and a fourth region corresponds to the Northern Izu-Bonin arc source. First-order volume estimates imply eruptive magnitudes ranging from 6.3 to 7.6 for Japan-related eruptions and between 5.5 and 6.5 for IBM eruptions. Our results suggest tephras between 30 and 22 Ma that show a subtly different Izu-Bonin chemical signature compared to the recent arc. After a ∼11 m.y. gap in eruption, tephra supply from the Izu-Bonin arc predominates from 15 to 5 Ma, and finally a subequal mixture of tephra sources from the (palaeo)Honshu and Izu-Bonin arcs occurs within the last ∼5 Ma.