Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: mechanistic insights and potential new downstream effects

R. M. Sharpe, N. E. Skakkebaek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reproductive disorders of newborn (cryptorchidism, hypospadias) and young adult males (low sperm counts, testicular germ cell cancer) are common and/or increasing in incidence. It has been hypothesized that these disorders may comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) with a common origin in fetal life. This has been supported by findings in an animal model of TDS involving fetal exposure to n(dibutyl) phthalate, as well as by new clinical studies. Recent advances in understanding from such studies have led to refinement of the TDS hypothesis, highlighting the central role that deficient androgen production/action during fetal testis development, may play in the origin of downstream disorders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e33-e38
JournalFertility and Sterility
Issue number2 Supplement
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2008


  • Testosterone
  • Sertoli cell
  • Leydig cell
  • fetal germ cells
  • cryptorchidism
  • hypospadias
  • low sperm counts
  • anogenital distance
  • compensated Leydig cell failure


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