The 3Ps: A tool for coach observation

Jamie Taylor*, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

There is growing recognition of the value of “in situ” coach development practice across a variety sporting contexts. Unfortunately, however, there remains a limited number of tools available with which to observe coaching practice. In this study, we pilot and test a quasi-systematic tool for observation in the form of the 3Ps. Drawing on a range of representational perspectives, the theoretically neutral labels of “procedure”, “planning”, and “process” were developed for the purpose of holistic observation. In order to test the tool, a group of experienced coach development practitioners (n = 10) integrated the tool into their practice over a 12-month programme of professional development. Those participants subsequently took part in semi-structured interviews, in which they expressed a strong sense of acceptability, perceiving effectiveness and positive opportunity cost. We propose that the 3Ps tool presents a holistic and practically useful means of observing coaches’ professional judgment and decision making. We also suggest future directions for the researcher who seeks to generate evidence in a naturalistic coaching context.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1066378
JournalFrontiers in Sports and Active Living
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • coach behaviour
  • coach development
  • expertise
  • macrocognition
  • observation
  • PJDM
  • sport coaching


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