The activation of contextually predictable words in syntactically illegal positions

Michael Cutter, Andrea E Martin, Patrick Sturt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

We present an eye-tracking study testing a hypothesis emerging from several theories of prediction during language processing, whereby predictable words should be skipped more than unpredictable words even in syntactically illegal positions. Participants read sentences in which a target word became predictable by a certain point (e.g. "bone" is 92% predictable given "The dog buried his…"), with the next word actually being an intensifier (e.g. "really"), which a noun cannot follow. The target noun remained predictable to appear later in the sentence. We used the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to present the predictable noun or an alternative unpredictable noun (e.g. "food") directly after the intensifier, until participants moved beyond the intensifier, at which point the noun changed to a syntactically legal word. Participants also read sentences in which predictable or unpredictable nouns appeared in syntactically legal positions. A Bayesian linear mixed model suggested a 5.7% predictability effect on skipping of nouns in syntactically legal positions, and a 3.1% predictability effect on skipping of nouns in illegal positions. We discuss our findings in relation to theories of lexical prediction during reading.
Original languageEnglish
JournalQuarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Early online date12 Mar 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Mar 2020

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • language prediction
  • eye-movements
  • word skipping


Dive into the research topics of 'The activation of contextually predictable words in syntactically illegal positions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this