The development and validation of a mental toughness scale for adolescents

Sarah McGeown, Helen St.Clair-Thompson, David Putwain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study examined the validity of a newly developed instrument, the Mental Toughness Scale for Adolescents (MTS-A), which examines the attributes of challenge, commitment, confidence (abilities and interpersonal) and control (life and emotion). The six factor model was supported using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA, n = 373) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, n = 372). In addition, the mental toughness attributes correlated with adolescents’ academic motivation and engagement (n = 439), well-being (depression and anxiety) (n = 279) and test anxiety (n = 279), indicating relations with a number of affective, cognitive and behavioural dispositions, and demonstrating relevance in education and potentially mental health contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-161
JournalJournal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Issue number2
Early online date11 Oct 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • mental toughness
  • adolescents
  • education
  • mental health


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