This paper describes the present epidemiological situation of Schistosoma haematobium in 4 villages in the middle valley of the Senegal River Basin, in terms of level and intensity of infection, seasonality of transmission, and intermediate hosts, and the effect of different treatment schedules with praziquantel on the overall infection levels and re-infection rates. The longitudinal study involving 7 surveys was carried out between June 1995 and March 1997 in Diatar, Guia, Donaye and Niandane. The prevalence and intensity of infection remained low throughout the survey (<55% and <12 eggs/10 mL urine), and there were no systematic differences in the prevalence or intensity of infection between men and women. Before treatment, infections were highly aggregated in individuals and were concentrated in children (aged <15 years) with 85% of the potential contamination; no individual aged > 24 years produced > 50 eggs/10 mL urine. Using WHO guidelines mass treatment was given to all Diatar and Guia villagers in December 1995, whereas in Donaye and Niandane only individuals positive for eggs were treated. Six weeks post-treatment cure rates in all villages were > 80%, with marked declines in levels of infection (<20% and <4.5 eggs/10 mL). By March 1997 infection levels in Donaye and Niandane had returned to pre-treatment levels, whereas in the 2 mass-treated villages (Diatar and Guia) infection levels were still markedly reduced compared to pre-treatment levels. Rates of conversion were very low between all surveys; however, there was an apparent high level of reversion (> 20%), due to the alternation of individuals apparently positive and negative between surveys. Water and infected snails were present from June to March. Therefore, owing to the high aggregation of infections in children, the low overall infection levels and the transmission period, it is suggested that in this area the best treatment schedule would be selective treatment of school-aged children in March/April, probably on an annual basis.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|