Confined compression experiments were carried out on cortico-cancellous bone taken from bovine femoral condyles to assess the effect of prior loading on the elastic confined modulus, Ec of morsellised cortico-cancellous bone (MCB). Measurements were taken to find the values of Ec for MCB subjected to cyclic loading resulting in axial stresses in the range of 0.5- 3.0 N / mm2. Two values of Ec were considered: Eic, the instantaneous modulus, and Edc, the delayed modulus allowing for stress relaxation effects. It was found that the values of Ec increased with increasing maximum axial stress. It was also found that for each stress level the values of Ec increased as the number of load cycles increased. The dependence of Ec on the maximum axial stress and the number of load cycles is seen to explain the wide range of values for the apparent modulus of MCB found in previous studies. Tests examining the stress relaxation behaviour of MCB are also discussed. The results indicate that a minimum of 10 compaction episodes are required for MCB to achieve around 90% of its predicted maximum stiffness for a given compaction force.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Biomechanics|
|Early online date||16 Jun 2005|
|Publication status||Published - 2006|
- Bone graft
- Elastic modulus
- Material properties