The epidemiology of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in low-and-middle-income countries – A systematic review and meta-analysis

Bibiana Ama Zirra Shallangwa, Lina González Gordon, Luis Hernandez Castro, Elizabeth Anne Jesse Cook, Mark Bronsvoort, Rob Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes reproductive inefficiencies and negatively impacts the economy of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is characterized by a combination of syndromes that result in poor production performance and calf morbidity and mortality. BVDV control is possible by introduction of biosecurity measures, test-and-cull, and vaccination programs as accomplished in high-income countries. Knowledge of BVDV epidemiology is limited in many LMICs, which hinders implementation of effective control programs. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the burden of BVDV, identify risk factors related to its occurrence, and health and economic impacts on production systems.
Materials and Methods: Relevant BVD articles were collated from library databases;
690 abstracts and full texts were found in an initial search followed by filtering of 59 manuscripts. We accounted for quality and risk of bias in the meta-analysis. Prevalence, exposure, and current infection at regional, production, and farming system levels were estimated using logistic random-effects meta-regression models. Finally, we calculated the proportion of studies that addressed risk factors and health and economic impacts across different production systems to inform future preventative strategies in LMICs.
Results: Seroprevalence was high and varied between regions. Mean weighted
prevalence was 39.5% (95% CI 25–56.1), 45.2% (95% CI 35.9–54.8), 49.9% (95%
CI 25.5–74.3), and 21.6% (95% CI 0.5–56) for sub-Saharan Africa, South America,
Middle East, and Asia, respectively. Seroprevalence varied across farming systems,
with smallholder farming showing the highest values. Herdsize was the most frequently reported risk factor, and the percentage of articles that reported herdsize as a risk factor were 20.6%, 33.3%, and 38.4% for dairy, beef and mixed systems respectively. Abortion (13.7% of articles) was the main reported health impact in dairy systems. Some articles reported milk drop (4.6% of articles), but no article investigated the economic cost of BVDV in farming systems.
Conclusion: Animal-level seroprevalence varied across all regions. Most of the studies focused on BVDV seroprevalence. There were some articles that investigated risk factors and health impacts, and there were even less that investigated economic impacts. Future studies should focus on identifying risk factors and quantifying health and economic impacts across systems. Understanding these aspects is crucial to develop management strategies to apply across diverse production systems in LMICs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number947515
Pages (from-to)1 - 17
Number of pages17
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Volume9
Early online date3 Aug 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)
  • BVDV
  • risk factors
  • health impact
  • economic impact
  • LMICs

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